Reverse osmosis systems have come a long ways since they where first developed in 1748 by Jean-Antoine Nollet. From the 1700's to the 1940's very little was done to advance the development of reverse osmosis. Then researchers from multiple American Universities began to experiment with different ways to remove salt from the ocean. A big breakthrough happened in 1959 by two researchers at UCLA, Sidney Loeb and Srinivasa Sourirajan. They developed a synthetic functioning RO membrane. This membrane was able to stop the salt molecules from passing through while still allowing the fresh water to pass through.
Reverse osmosis is a water purification process that assists to separate solute particles from the solvent. The process is now made commercially available within a number of home-use water purifier styles.
Reverse osmosis water filtration systems use pressure to force water through a specifically created membrane. The membrane plays an essential role in ensuring that the solvent penetrates to the opposite side, by maintaining the solutes or particles liquified in water. The result is the natural movement of the solvent (water) from a location of high solute (pollutant) concentration, through the membrane, to a location of low solute concentration. The exerted pressure is described as osmotic pressure.
In the water filter, the membrane utilized for reverse osmosis comprises a dense barrier layer. The applied pressure in the water system is normally anything in between:
2 and 17 bar or 30 to 250 psi, to treat fresh, brackish water.
40 and 80 bar or 600 to 1000 psi, to treat seawater.
Working of an RO Water Purifier
A reverse osmosis water purifier differs in size and capacity, according to the neighborhood or area being catered to.
The impure water is routed into one compartment of the style and launched, under pressure, through the membrane into the nearby compartment. The water is dealt with through the application of osmotic pressure to produce an analogous flow that is triggered by a pressure differential.
Around the world, a number of households and medical systems use water from drinking water filtration systems. Portable RO water filters are utilized by individuals in remote areas and tourists, for water filtration; and also to treat wastewater, to conserve this really valuable natural resource.